This study examines the social values, choices and ideologies that are produced and reinforced in and through advertisements. The analyses are based on twelve different advertisements aired on Pakistani T.V channels and internet (Western). The study has focused on how male and female are represented differently through ads in order to serve gender inequality and power relations. The study has used critical discourse analysis (CDA) and semiotics as research tools. It provides researchers to analyse how different meanings and ideologies are constructed, processed and legitimised in social practices than just examining the discursive texts. The analysis is based on Fairclough’s three dimensional framework – description (textual features), interpretation (discursive practice) and explanation (social practice). The study has also problematized ads by applying ‘a propaganda model’ presented by Herman and Chomsky. The findings have indicated that advertisements promote gender inequality and the patriarchal ideology. The advertisers use various strategies (textual and body features) in order to naturalize stereotypical roles of male and female. Such advertisements reinforce soft, decorative, ignorant, family oriented but intellectual women. On the other hand, men are represented as courageous, bold and bread winner. As a result, the ads serve social power relations and support the patriarchal state. This study, therefore has suggested that critical analysts needs to reveal and challenge implicit social values and decided images for male and female embedded in advertisements. The study also suggests how the role of women may be presented beyond her traditional role in a patriarchal society.
Marvi Shaikh, Dr. Faraz Ali Bughio, Pakistan. (2015) The Representation Of Men And Women In Advertisements: A Critical Discourse Analysis, The Women - Annual Research Journal of Gender Studies, Volume-07, Issue-1.