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The bus-based public transport system in developing countries poses serious environmental challenges. This paper explores the environmental performance of buses managed and operated by private companies in Lahore under franchise initiative of Government of Punjab. The empirical evidence shows that buses pollute the air with CO and NOx emissions. The bus-based air pollution is result of obsolete engine technology, poor maintenance regime, excessive passenger load, and inadequate training of bus drivers. The problem of air pollution increases due to lack of regulatory measures on operators to maintain vehicles in good condition. The paper suggests that effective inspection and maintenance regime, careful selection of new engine technologies, mixed fuel strategy and segregated bus ways can help achieving the reduction in total vehicle emissions

R. Hameed, G.A. Anjum. (2013) Improving the Environmental Performance of Bus-based Public Transport System in Lahore-Pakistan, Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 1.
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