Australia’s path to innovation began with the very early use of tools and cultivation by aboriginal communities. With the arrival of Europeans from 1788, innovation focused on supporting agricultural production and mineral extraction. More recently, Australian innovation has extended to include high technology products such as the Cochlea Ear and the production of plastic bank notes, developed through a strong foundation in fundamental science. Looking to the future, Australia has greatly expanded its international cooperation. Bibliometric data show strong growth in collaborative chemical research papers between chemists in Australia and those in China, greatly exceeding those with Japan and India, the next strongest partners in collaboration. The most productive areas of chemistry for international collaboration are physical chemistry and chemical engineering. Concerning Pakistan, bibliometric data show a dramatic growth in collaboration between Australian and Pakistani scientists. Data analysis support the benefits of international collaboration.

J. Webb, T. Spurling, A. Finch. (2018) Australia, Innovation and International Collaboration, Scientific Inquiry and Review, Volume 2, Issue 1.
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