Water is a key factor in the success of the washing process. The hardness of water effects pH and pH determines the solubility. The results reveal that people living in hard water areas seldom use water softeners as compared to those living in soft water areas; the absolute percentage of people living in hard water areas and using water softener is quite low and they use more detergent. A limitation of the study is that it is based on self-reported water pH and not on actual analytical laboratory results of water tested for this property. On the other hand, an implication of the current research is that many consumers are aware of the adverse effect of pH on the outcome of the washing process and they apply various methods to neutralize this effect.”

Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Saqlain, Naveed Jafar. (2018) Consumer’s Perception and Impact of pH on Detergent in Automatic Washing Machine Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller, Scientific Inquiry and Review, Volume 2, Issue 3.
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